Course Descriptions

BIOL 104 (4) Principles of Biology: Human Emphasis Principles of cellular, organismal and population biology with primary representation relating to the human organism. Includes study of cells, tissues, and mammalian organ systems. Enrollment restricted to Kinesiology majors. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory.

BIOL 160 (4) Microbiology for Health Sciences Basic concepts of microbiology, including classification, metabolic activity and the effect of physical and chemical agents on microbial populations. Host parasite interactions, infectious agents, methods of transmission and control are also discussed. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Course is designed for Nursing students.

BIOL 175 (4) Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology I The first in a two-course series designed to introduce the principles of human anatomy and physiology for students in health and human services, including Nursing. Taught from a systems perspective where students will learn basic physiological principles and mechanisms along with their associated anatomical basis. Material includes anatomical terminology, cell and tissue structure and function, basic biochemical and metabolic pathways and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, digestive and excretory systems. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Enrollment restricted to declared Pre-Nursing students. Students must obtain consent from the School of Nursing Advisor; consent will only be given to students who have completed the Lower-Division General Education requirements in areas A1, A2, A3, and B4.

BIOL 176 (4) Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology II  The second in a two-course series designed to introduce the principles of human anatomy and physiology for students in health and human services, including Nursing. Taught from a systems perspective where students will learn basic physiological principles and mechanisms along with their associated anatomical basis. Material includes nervous system and the senses, and the endocrine, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Three hours lecture and three hours of labora-tory. Prerequisite: BIOL 175.

BIOL 177 (4) Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology I The first in a two-course series designed to introduce the principles of human anatomy and physiology for students in Kinesiology. Taught from a systems perspective students will learn basic physiological principles and mechanisms along with their associated anatomical basis. Includes anatomical terminology, cell and tissue structure and function, basic biochemical and metabolic pathways, nervous system and the senses, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and excretory systems. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Enrollment restricted to Kinesiology majors.

BIOL 178 (4) Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology II The second in a two-course series designed to introduce the principles of human anatomy and physiology for students in Kinesiology. Taught from a systems perspective students will learn basic physiological principles and mechanisms along with their associated anatomical basis. Material includes nervous system and the senses, and the endocrine, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Three hours of lecture and three of hours of laboratory. Enrollment requirement: BIOL 177. Enrollment restricted to Kinesiology majors.

BIOL 210 (4) Introduction to Cellular and Molecular Biology The first of a two-semester core sequence that provides the student with basic knowledge in biology, including specific experimental techniques and familiarity with the scientific method. Emphasizes cellular structure and physiology, molecular evolution, classical and molecular genetics, and biochemistry. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 202. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Co/prerequisite: CHEM 150.

BIOL 211 (4) Introduction to Organismal and Population Biology The second of a two-semester core sequence that provides the student with basic knowledge in biology, including specific experimental techniques and familiarity with the scientific method. Emphasizes physiology, development, divers ity of life, evolution, and ecology. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 201. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210.

BIOL 212 (3) Evolution A consideration of evolution as the unifying concept in biology. Diversity and adaptation of form, function, and behavior of living organisms. Biological, geological, anthropol ogical, and chemical evidence for and mechanisms of evolutionary change, including global pattern of distribu-tion and specialization, mass extinctions, the evolution of race and sex, and the origin of species. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 362.

 BIOL 215 (3) Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Design and analysis of biological surveys and experiments. Includes hypothesis formation, experimental design, statistical analysis, and presentation of results. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 315 or BIOL 360. Corequisite: BIOL 215L.

BIOL 215L (1) Laboratory in Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis Hands-on experience in design of surveys and experiments in biological sciences and their subsequent statistical analysis. Involves extensive use of computers for statistical simulation and analysis. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 360. Co/ prerequisite: BIOL 215.

BIOL 309 (3) The Biology of Emerging Diseases Defines and discriminates between emerging and other diseases, agent characteristics and risk factors, improper use of antibiotics, multi-drug resistant infectious agents as factors of emerging diseases. Selected emerging food-borne, bacterial, protozoal and viral diseases of humans will be described and analyzed. A special emphasis will be placed on HIV and bioterror agents. Not open to Biological Sciences majors except by consent of advisor.

BIOL 316 (3) The Biology of Cancer Considers the chemistry, cell biology, and etiology of human cancer. Includes characteristics of tumor cells, malignant transformation of cells, tumor viruses, chemical and environ-mental carcinogens, effects of radiation, oncogenes, and the genetics of cancer. Enrollment Requirement: A college-level course in biology.

BIOL 318 (3) Plants and Society Introduction to the impact of aquatic and terrestrial plants on society, including vegetables and fruit, spices and herbs, beverage plants, herbal medicines, toxic-poisonous species, psychoactive plants, and other economically important species from a variety of habitats. The role of humans in the development of these important plants and latest developments in biotechnology will be discussed.

BIOL 320 (3) Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech and Hearing Mechanism Explores the anatomy and physiology of speech and hearing including respiration, phonation, resonance, articulation and perception. An introduction to the central and peripheral nervous system also is provided. Enrollment restricted to students who have completed the Lower-Division General Education requirement in Life Science (B2).

BIOL 321 (3) Human Physiology A survey of body systems, how they function, and how they can malfunction leading to disease. Includes respiration, nutrition, waste removal, reproduction (including birth), embryonic development, muscular movement, and exercise.

BIOL 323 (3) The Physiology of Nutrition and Disease Study of the anatomy and physiology of human nutrition and functional relationships to disease. Includes metabolism, cellular metabolism, digestive physiology, nutrients, enzymes, vitamins, weight management, stress, diet, the role of exercise in nutrition, and the role of nutrition in development. Also covered will be symptoms and effects of disease associated with inadequate nutrition, nutritional contributions to diseases not associated with inadequate diet, and contributions of nutrition to health. Special attention will be given to health concerns of women and the differences in nutritional needs between genders. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of Director/Chair-HHS Advisor.

BIOL 325 (3) The Physiology of Exercise and Health Concepts in functional anatomy and physiology will be integrated with current concepts in health and medicine. Includes anatomy of muscula-ture associated with physical exertion; physiology of muscle systems, cardiovascular system, and nervous system pertaining to the physical movement of exercise. Emphasis on preventative health care, exercise and health of women, and gender differences in physiology and health.

BIOL 326 (3) Biological Trends in 21st Century Medicine Explores the science and controversy surrounding a broad range of cutting edge science topics that will change the way we look at medicine in the 21st century. Subjects include cloning, genetically engineered foods and animals, stem cell research, generic testing, and the development of personalized gene chips for personalized medical attention.

BIOL 327 (3) Biology of Human Reproduction Physiology and anatomy of human reproduction. Covers the form, function, and mechanism and sex development, puberty, sexual abnormalities, venereal diseases, menstrual cycle, sexual behavior and contraception, pregnancy, embryonic development, birth, lactation, and the sexuality of aging (including menopause). May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 347.

BIOL 328 (3) Human Heredity Review of genetics from a human perspective. Includes DNA structure and replication, chromosomes and cytogenetics; Mendelian inheritance; dominant and recessive alleles, the genetics of sex, mutations and mutagenesis; inherited traits; pedigrees, genetic diseases including inborn errors of metabolism; and genetic therapy.

BIOL 329 (3) Biology of Aging A study of why and how animals and people age. Includes an evalua-tion of the causes and consequences of biological changes that occur during aging from the cellular to the whole animal level. Topics of discussion include evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging, demography and age structure of populations, the use of modern methods to test mechanistic theories of aging, and the use of long-lived versus short-lived animal models to inform us about basic aging processes. Not open to Biological Sciences majors except by consent of advisor.

BIOL 336 (3) Coastal Environments  Considers the biological and physical processes that structure coastal environments and examines the application of marine science to the management of coastal resources.  Investigates the impacts of the often conflicting uses of the coastal zone including fisheries, oil production and transportation, ocean dumping and coastal development.  Coastal zone management tools and applications at local, state, federal, and international levels are discussed.  Not open to Biological Sciences majors except by consent of advisor.  Field trips outside the classroom may be required.

BIOL 338 (3) Human Impact on the Environment Considers the major areas where human use of resources and consequent waste production (chemical, industrial, and biological) have had a negative impact on specific environments and on the species that inhabit them. An attempt will be made to identify areas of future adverse human impact and to evolve remedial solutions.

BIOL 339 (3) Conservation Biology Study of the principles of ecology applied to plant and animal populations considered endangered, threatened, or at risk. Investigates the complex factors contributing to the dynamics, decline, extinction, and perhaps recovery of species. Develops a stewardship perspective rooted in biological principles and considers the associated cultural, historical, economic, and political issues. Local, regional, and global conservation strategies are discussed.

BIOL 351 (5) Molecular Cell Biology An integrated view of contemporary molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology. The fundamental principles of molecular biology including DNA replication, mechanisms and regulation of transcription and translation, and nucleic acid and protein structure and function will be presented and interwoven with some of the more traditional topics in cell biology and biochemistry. Examines the molecular basis of membrane structure and transport, cytoplasmic structure, and energy metabolism, organelle structure and function, cell motility, and cell-cell interaction and signal transduction. Three hours of lecture, one hour seminar, three hours laboratory. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 352 (4) Genetics Detailed study of classical transmission, molecular quantitative and population genetics. Included will be current observations and concepts of the nature, organization, function and regulation of the expression of genetic material. Subject matter covered includes mechanisms of genetic conveyance, recombination, mapping, mutation and repair, RNA and DNA viruses, karyotyping, human genetics, and genetics of organelles. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 353 (4) Comparative Animal Physiology A comparative survey of physiological adaptations including gas transport, metabolism, temperature and dehydration tolerance, and locomotion. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Recommended Preparation: BIOL 215, 215L; can be taken concurrently. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 354 (4) Principles of Ecology Discussion of major concepts in population, community, and evolutionary ecology including population growth and regulation, competition, predation, energetics, adaptations, and diversity.  Weekend field trips may be required.  Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory.  Enrollment Requirement:  BIOL 210, 211, 215, and 215L.

BIOL 363 (3) Principles of Conservation Biology An in-depth focus on the principles and practices of conservation and restoration ecology. Factors that affect the creation, destruction, and distribution of biological diversity are examined. Class discussions and assignments will focus on human destruction and degradation of habitats, invasive species introductions, accelerated species extinctions, pollution, global climate change, and species over-exploitation. The selection and maintenance of conservation areas will be explored, as well as the theory and methodology for restoring degraded habitats. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 396J. Field trip(s) outside of class may be required. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 367 (4) Biology of Microorganisms Presents a comprehensive selection of subjects from the field of microbiology. Students will study prokaryotic structure and function; growth and control of microorganisms; ecology, physiology, and diversity of bacteria; basic microbial and viral genetics, microorganisms of medical and economic significance; and biotechnology and its human applica-tions and societal implications. The laboratory component will employ research-oriented group activities, in addition to individual projects and assignments, and will engage students in the latest techniques utilized in the field of microbiology. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 368 (3) Developmental Biology An in-depth consideration of the processes involved in the development of multicellular organisms. Subjects covered include gametogenesis, fertilization, embryogenesis, cell-cell interactions, morphogenesis, differentiation, and developmental genetics. Recommended Preparation: BIOL 351 and 352. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 368L (1) Developmental Biology Laboratory Provides hands-on experience in techniques currently in use in develop-mental biology research. Techniques included may very from year to year as changes in the field warrant. Model organisms are used such as sponges, slime mold, sea urchin, C. Elegans, chicks, zebrafish, arabadopsis, and the fruit fly. Some techniques currently covered include cell-cell adhesion, in vitro fertilization, northern blotting, western blotting, and antibody based histochemical staining. Three hours labora-tory. Recommended Preparation: BIOL 351 and 352. Co/Prerequisite: BIOL 368. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 370 (4) Plant Physiology  An examination of the physiological processes that contribute to plant growth and development, including the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms.  Areas covered include primary metabolism, water and nutrient relations, plant hormones, and plant biotechnology applications.  Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory.  Recommended Preparation:  BIOL 351.  Enrollment Requirement:  BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 370L (1) Plant Physiology Lab  BIOL 370L is a companion course to the Plant Physiology lecture (BIOL 370).  The lab will provide hands-on experience with classical and molecular techniques utilized in modern plant physiology research, such as plant transformation, tissue culture, nucleic acid isolation, enzyme activity assays, and plant/pathogen challenge assays (specific topics may vary by semester).  Three hours of laboratory.  Corequisite:  BIOL 370. 

BIOL 372 (3) Tissue Physiology and Structure The physiology of tissues is intimately linked to their structure. Organ tissues out of homeostatic balance reflect consistent changes in their structure. Tissue physiology and structure explores the link between health and disease at the microscopic level by examining the interrela-tionship between microanatomical features and their function. Students will analyze the detailed structure and function of cells that comprise tissues, organs and organ systems, and how their structure dictates their specific physiological role in health and disease. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 396-2. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 372L (1) Tissue Physiology and Structure Lab Students will examine detailed structure and function of cells and tissues, and how their structure dictates their specific physiological role. Techniques used to preserve, fix, stain and section tissues and pieces of organs for standard histological and pathological examination will be discussed, as well as specialized techniques (autoradiography, immuno-fluorescence, confocal microscopy, etc.). A comparison between normal tissues and pathological changes associated with homeostatic balance and disease will be examined. Students electing to take the laboratory will gain hands-on experience in collecting, embedding, sectioning and staining tissue sections. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 397-1. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211. Co/prerequisite: BIOL 372.

BIOL 374 (3) Exercise Physiology and Bioenergetics Examines the functional responses and adaptations that accompany acute and chronic exercise, particularly involving cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, endocrine, and muscular systems. Subject matter will include energy for physical activity, systems for energy delivery and utilization; training and enhancement of energy capacities; skeletal muscle energy balance, and health related aspects of exercise. Discussion of the instrumentation and techniques fundamental to exercise physiology and biochemistry will also be covered. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 375 (3) Endocrinology A survey of hormone types with emphasis on vertebrate examples, their biochemical composition, and physiological interrelationships. A consid-erable part of the course will consider the molecular mechanisms of action. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210, 211 and CHEM 201.

BIOL 379 (4) Invertebrate Biology Introduction to the invertebrate phyla, with emphasis on structure, function, adaptations, life histories, evolution and the interdependence of form, physiology, and ecology. Laboratory study will emphasize marine invertebrates of the San Diego area. One Saturday field trip may be required. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 380 (3) Comparative Animal Behavior  Experimental and theoretical investigations in animal behavior, including humans.  Interspecies comparisons of sensory, motor, neural, and endocrine structures and functioning.  Influence of genetic, biochemical/hormonal, and nuerological factors on animal behavior.  One or more field trips may be required.  Enrollment Requirement:  BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 381 (3) Plant Diversity Introduction to the major taxonomic groupings of plants with emphasis on structure, function, adaptations, life histories, systematics, and evolution. Includes single cell to multicellular construction, water-to-land transition, structural adaptations, and trends in reproduction from cell division to simple sexual reproduction to well protected embryos and complex co-evolution of pollinators. Three hours of lecture. Field trip outside of class may be required. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 381L (1) Plant Diversity Laboratory Provides hands-on experience examining plants representing the diversity of plant life, including live cultures and specimens, microscopic materials, video clips, and preserved collections. Students will learn how to identify major groupings and representative genera by their distinguishing characteristics. Students will also learn a variety of microscopic and macroscopic techniques that will be useful in plant identification. Three hours of laboratory. Field trip outside of class may be required. Corequisite: BIOL 381. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 382 (3) Biogeography Introduction to the understanding of global biodiversity and the basis for geographic distribution patterns of individuals, populations and communi-ties. The role of past geological and evolutionary events on these distributions will be considered. The considerable impact of humans on modern local to global range extensions will be studied including the basis for biological invasions. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 396-1. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 384 (4) Natural History of Southern California Introduction to the natural history and community ecology of southern California. Major subjects include the climate, geology, and ecological factors that influence the local chaparral, coastal sage scrub, grassland, forest, desert, riparian, marsh, and estuarine communities of southern California. Field trip(s) outside of class will be required. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 211.

BIOL 386 (3) Terrestrial Ecology  A survey of terrestrial ecosystems and the biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factors that affect ecosystem structure and function.  Emphasis will be on the important mass (C, H2O nutrient) and energy (production and consumption) fluxes that flow into, out of, and through terrestrial ecosystems, and the plant-animal interactions that regulate the rates and magnitudes of these mass and energy flows.  Weekend field trips may be required.  Enrollment Requirement:  BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 386L (1) Terrestrial Ecology Laboratory Provides students with an introduction to laboratory and research techniques for quantifying the interactions between C, H2O and nutrient cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. Students will conduct observational and sampling studies of local ecosystems and manipulative experiments in the field, laboratory, and/or greenhouse. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 397D. Three hours of laboratory. Co/Prerequisite: BIOL 386. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 387 (3) Ecological Processes in Aquatic Systems Discusses the biological, physical, and chemical processes affecting marine and freshwater environments, and the interactions among these processes. Emphasis on productivity, nutrient dynamics, food webs, biogeochemical cycles and biogeography of pelagic systems. One Saturday field trip may be required. Recommended Preparation: Concurrent enrollment in BIOL 387L, when also offered. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 387L (1) Aquatic Ecology Lab Provides students with experience in laboratory and field methods used by oceanographers and limnologists to sample populations, measure rate processes, and quantify the aquatic environment. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211. Co/prerequisite: BIOL 387.

BIOL 388 (3) Marine Communities Examines the environmental characteristics, patterns of species distri-bution and abundance, and adaptations of organisms in marine benthic communities. Community structure and biological interactions including predation, competition, and symbiosis will be investigated in specific communities such as the rocky intertidal zone, lagoons, coral reefs, hydrothermal vents, and shallow polar seas. Human impacts on specific marine communities will be explored. Field trip(s) outside of class hours may be required. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 389 (3) Freshwater Biology Introduction to the physical, chemical and biological processes in freshwater systems, including headwaters, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and vernal pools. Topics include biogeochemical cycling, controls on production, evolutionary selection, community patterns, population dynamics, and food web structure. Significant species in the open water and attached communities will be discussed regarding composition, environmental factors and role. Analyzes the impacts of using freshwaters for drinking water, irrigation, recreation, transporta-tion, flood control, and power generation. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 396M. Field trip outside class may be required. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 390 (3) Terrestrial Plant Ecology Survey of the factors that influence the distribution and abundance of land (terrestrial) plants. Focuses on plant population dynamics (e.g., dispersal, germination, and recruitment), plant-plant and plant-animal interactions, and the effect of abiotic factors (e.g., climate, water, and nutrients) on the structure and function of terrestrial plant communities. Weekend field trips may be required. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.  

BIOL 390L (1) Terrestrial Plant Ecology Laboratory Provides students with an introduction to laboratory and research techniques in terrestrial plant ecology. Students will conduct experi-ments to investigate environmental controls on the physiology (including photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration), growth, and resource allocation of land plants. Students will learn standard research techniques in plant ecology and utilize technology specifically designed to quantify plant function. Experiments will be conducted in the labora-tory and green house, and weekend field trips may be required. Three hours of laboratory. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 397E. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211. Co/Prerequisite: BIOL 390.

BIOL 396 (1-3) Topics in Biology Seminar reviewing current literature in a subject area of importance in biology. May be repeated for credit as topics change for a total of six (6) units. Students should check the Class Schedule for listing of actual topics. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 397 (1) Topics in Biology Lab Laboratory experience that explores phenomena and techniques in the biological sciences. May be repeated for credit as topics change for a total of three (3) units. Students should check the Class Schedule for listing of actual topics. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 400 (3) Vertebrate Biology Introduction to vertebrate animals, including overview of their evolution, systematics, anatomy, physiology, ecology and behavior. Major subjects will include, water-to-land transition, origins of amniotic egg, flight and endothermy, patters of social organization and mating systems, and general life-history strategies. Courses will emphasize terrestrial vertebrates of the San Diego area. May not be taken by students who have received credit for BIOL 378. Field trip(s) outside the class may be required. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 400L (1) Vertebrate Biology Laboratory Provides hands-on experience in identifying terrestrial vertebrates of Southern California. Using preserved specimens and interactive computer programs, students will learn to use and develop dichotomous species keys and to identify vertebrates by sight and sound. Students will design and conduct independent field research projects. Course will possibly include visits to local museums, zoos and aquaria. May not be taken by students who have received credit for BIOL 378L. Three hours of laboratory. Field trip(s) outside of class may be required. Co/ Prerequisite: BIOL 400. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 401 (4) Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Comparison of similarities and differences among vertebrate groups on the basis of structure and function. Emphasis will be placed on the evolution and vertebrate structures, new roles for derived and ancestral characters, adaptation of new functions, relationship to life style, life history and evolutionary phylogeny. A major goal of this course is to generate a greater understanding of the evolutionary processes and concomitant structural changes that have occurred among vertebrates including humans. Laboratory study includes dissection, and analysis of organ systems, and evolutionary innovations among representative vertebrates. Prerequisites: Biology 210, 211, and 212.

BIOL 403 (3) Modern Molecular Biology and Genomics An introduction to modern applications of molecular biology, including genomics. Specific topics covered will include genome sequencing, microarrays, large scale mutagenesis, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Using the primary literature as a guide, explores both the technologies that underlie modern molecular biology and the impacts that current studies are having on our understanding of all biology, from agriculture to human disease. Recommended: BIOL 352. Prerequisite: BIOL 351. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 596G and 503.

BIOL 403L (1) Modern Molecular Biology and Genomics Laboratory Provides students with hands-on experience using the technologies and approaches of genomics and proteomics research, including microarrays, genome annotation, and 2-D gel electropohoresis. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 596G and 503L.¿ Corequisite: BIOL 403. Recommended: BIOL 352. Prerequisite:¿ BIOL 351.

BIOL 411 (3) Animal Reproductive Physiology Overview of the comparative structure and function of reproduc-tive systems in animals, with in depth coverage of the reproductive physiology of select model species representing diverse taxa. Major topics will include sexual development, male and female reproductive cycles, gametogenesis, fertilization, implantation, gestation, birth, and lactation. Minor topics include mechanisms of environmental regulation of reproduction and applications of assisted reproductive technology. Course will emphasize evolution of diverse physiologic adaptations of the reproductive system. One Saturday field trip may be required. Three hours of lecture. Recommended preparation: BIOL 375. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 212. Prerequisite: BIOL 353.

BIOL 411L (1) Animal Reproductive Physiology Laboratory Provides hands-on exploration of the anatomy, histology and physiology of the male and female reproductive system in a wide variety of animal species, including laboratory animals, livestock and wildlife. Both preserved specimens and computer programs will be used in the course to explore the diversity of physiologic adaptations of the reproduc-tive system in animals. Optional field trips may be included. Three hours of laboratory. Recommended preparation: BIOL 375. Enrollment Requirement BIOL 212: Prerequisite: BIOL 353. Co/Prerequisite: BIOL 411.

BIOL 476 (3) Neurobiology Introduct ion to invertebrate and vertebrate nervous syst ems, including anatomical organization. Focus on cellular/biochemical approaches to understanding neuronal development and functioning, synaptic transmis-sion, the specif icity of neuronal action and the complexity of nerve system functioning. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 376. Co/Prerequisite: BIOL 353.  BIOL 477 (3) Immunology Study of the mammalian immune system at the molecular and cellular level. Mechanisms of immun ology, such as generation of unique receptor specificities, transduction of signals through T and B cell receptors, programmed cell death and lymphocyte selection, regulation of responses by growth factors and cytokines, and cell-cell interac-tions, are explored. The course perspectives includes historical and technological aspects of modern immunob iology. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 377. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211.

BIOL 477L (1) Immunology Lab As a complementary course to Immunology (BIOL 477), this technique-oriented course will cover modern immunological assays and method-ologies. Specific techniques covered in detail include hemagluttination, ELISAs, immunoprecipitation and Western blot assays. A section on animal handling, targeting animal research ethics, rodent handling and tissue dissection will be explored. Students will also be exposed to immunological database and algorithmic tools in a bioinformation unit. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 377L. Three hours of laboratory. Co/Prerequisite: BIOL 477.

BIOL 480 (4) Bioinformatics An overview of the field of bioinformatics, which lies at the crossroads between the fields of molecular biology and computer science, and examines the structure and function of genes, proteins, and whole genomes through the use of computation analysis, statistics, and pattern recognition. A combination of lecture/class discussions and hands-on instruction in the use of, and theory behind bioinformatics algorithms/ software used in genome analysis will be presented. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 596F and 597B. Three hours of lecture and three hours of laboratory. Prerequisite: BIOL 351.

BIOL 488 (2) Seminar in Biomedical Research Provides a foundation in biomedical research and effective communica-tion practices for students preparing for biomedical research careers. Integrates disciplinary approaches to biomedical research around fundamental principles and practices of scientific method, research ethics and responsible conduct, and the organization of scientific inquiry in institutions of higher learning. Subject matter will change each semester. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 396F. May be repeated for a total of eight (8) units. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

BIOL 489 (2) Introduction to Laboratory/Field Research A research project in the laboratory or field, generated in collabora-tion with a faculty member. May be repeated once for credit, or the project may be continued for an additional semester as part of BIOL 499. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

BIOL 495 (3) Internship in Biology Career-related laboratory and/or field experience in private industry and public agencies. All participants utilize learning agreements. A final written report is required. Students will be supervised both on site and by the course instructor. Inc ludes particip ation in a one hour seminar each week. The learning agreement form must be completed and signed prior to enrollment. May be repeated for a maxim um of six (6) units, but only three (3) units can be applied toward the major. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor prior to registration.

BIOL 496A (1) 496B (2) Supervised Laboratory Instruction Experience for senior biology majors in the organization of and techniques for teaching a laboratory in biology. Includes individual supervision of directed teaching. A written report is required. May be repeated for a maximum of two (2) units (one hour conference and three hours lab per unit). Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

BIOL 498 (2) Senior Library Thesis In-depth reading and researching of the literature on current issues in biology. The student must consult with a biology faculty member to decide on the topic and then produce a (approximately) 30-page paper with supporting citations that summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

BIOL 499 (2) Senior Laboratory Thesis Research project in the laboratory or field, generated in collaboration with a biology faculty member. Enrollment Requirement: At least one course related to the subject area completed with a B or better. Prerequisite: BIOL 489. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

BIOL 502 (3) Population Genetics Patterns of the distribution of genes in populations with emphasis on quantitative genetics, gene frequency, selection of the effects of mutation on populations. Genetic mechanisms in evolution are consid-ered. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enrollment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 352.

BIOL 504 (3) Virology A comparative survey of bacterial, animal and plant virus variations, including retroviruses and prions. Emphasis is placed upon the variations in structure, nucleic acid composition, and replic ation patterns. The relationship of viruses to disease is given serious considerat ion. Co/prerequisite: BIOL 352.

BIOL 505 (3) Physiological Ecology Advanced exploration of the interactions between animals and their environment. Focuses on major life processes such as respiration, endothermy versus ectothermy, torpor, hibernation, and the physio-logical trade-offs between growth, storage, reproduction and survival. Physiological features of animals that permit them to live in extreme environments including the deep sea, deserts, boreal/polar regions, and caves will be discussed. Field trip(s) outside of class may be required. Enrollment Requirement: 210 and 211. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enrollment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 354.

BIOL 512 (3) Physiology of Aging Examines changes in animal physiology that occurs during aging. Subjects include evolutionary and proximate causes of aging, physiolog-ical mechanisms proposed to explain aging, and methods to study and to manipulate rate of aging (e.g. caloric restriction). Both theoretical concepts and empirical examples will be addressed. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enrollment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 353.

BIOL 512L (1) Physiology of Aging Laboratory Provides hands-on experience in techniques currently used to study physiological changes during aging. Students will design and perform experiments that demonstrate central topics of the biology of aging. Exact labs will change as the field of biogerontology develops, but may include experiments to test effects of caloric restriction, trade-offs between reproduction and longevity, declines in physiological systems with age, and cellular resistance to oxidative stress. Model organisms will typically include small rodents, insects, and nematode worms. Three hours laboratory. Co/prerequisite: BIOL 512.

BIOL 513 (3) Ecology of Parasitism Parasites have regulatory effects on host populations, impart significant economic impact, and are sensitive indicators of pollution as well as other natural and anthropogenic effects. Examines the interaction of parasites with their hosts. The host-parasite interaction creates a unique physiological and genetic system as both host and parasite adjust and adapt to the pressures imposed by the other. Modes of parasitism, life cycles, mechanisms of infection, alteration of host behavior, and novel physiological pathways will be examined as a biological arms race is waged between genetically distinct organisms. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL596K. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210, 211, and 212. Prerequisite: BIOL 354.

BIOL 514 (3) Physiology of Parasitism Examines the physiology of hosts and parasites including how host physiology affects its susceptibility to parasites and subsequent host response to infection. Explores how parasite physiology influences their ability to infect hosts. Subjects will range from whole animal metabolism and immune response to specific biochemical pathways that change during parasitism. Both theoretical concepts and empirical examples will be addressed. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enroll-ment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 353.

BIOL 514L (1) Physiology of Parasitism Lab Provides hands-on experience in techniques currently used to study host-parasite physiology. Students will design and perform experiments that illustrate central topics of host-parasite associations. Subjects will change as the field develops, but may include studies of susceptibility, infection intensity, time to clear parasites and physiological effects of parasites on host life history. Focuses mainly on macroparasites and their vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Three hours laboratory. Co/ prerequisite: BIOL 514.

BIOL 515 (3) Medical Physiology  An advanced study of human physiology, particularly as it relates to disease. Examines physiological systems at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. Consists of lectures, student reviews of current articles from medical journals, group presentations, and class discussions designed as an in-depth examination of a particular disease, its causes and current treatments. Subjects will be organized around physiological systems and their defects. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 596A. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enrollment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 353.

BIOL 520 (3) Advanced Molecular Cell Biology Treatment of contemporary areas of interest in cell biology, molecular genetics, and development. Subjects covered may include, but are not limited to, the cell cycle, signal transduction and cell-cell communication, the regulation of gene expression, determination and differentiation, and oncogenes. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 428. Recommended Preparation: BIOL 368 and CHEM 304. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enrollment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 351 and 352.

BIOL 531 (3) Biological Data Analysis I - Linear Models A large fraction of common statistical analysis types in the biological sciences can be expressed as a linear model. Teaches students to use linear models to statistically analyze data, and emphasizes the conceptual unity of seemingly disparate analytical techniques. Specific analysis types will include: analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, linear regression, logistic regression, and log linear models. New advances in likelihood-based model selection will also be addressed. Additional subjects will be selected by students. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 596H. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 215 and BIOL 215L or Graduate standing.

BIOL 532 (3) Biological Data Analysis II - Multivariate Analysis From molecular biology to ecosystem studies, technology is facili-tating collection of large, multivariate biological data sets. Multivariate analyses seek to simplify, summarize, and test hypotheses about these complex data sets. Addresses major issues in multivariate analysis, and will introduce students to common analysis types and visualiza-tion approaches. Subjects covered will include: principal components analysis, discriminant analysis, canonical correlation, and redundancy analysis. Additional subjects will be selected by students based on their needs and interests. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 596H. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 215 and BIOL 215L or Graduate standing.

BIOL 533 (4) Geographic Information Systems Applications in Landscape Ecology Explores how landscape structure and pattern affect ecological processes, at the individual, population, community, and ecosystem levels. Applications to land use planning and conservation biology will be covered. The primary enabling technologies for this new, rapidly growing discipline include remote sensing (such as satellite imagery) and geographic information systems (GIS), which will be covered during a weekly lab session. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 596J and 597C.

BIOL 535 (3) Ecological Modeling An introduction to the use and development of mathematical models for simulating dynamics of ecological systems. Ecological theory will be considered through the development of mathematical models. Models developed for simulating the effects of abiotic and biotic controls on ecological processes include continuous-and discrete-time population models, "gap" models, cellular automata, fisheries, and biogeochemical and biogeographical models. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enrollment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 354.

BIOL 536 (3) Biogeochemical Cycles and Global Change Biological, chemical, and physical processes controlling the transport and transformation of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and trace metals in natural ecosystems and at the global level. Global models of the major elemental and hydrologic cycles are discussed, with emphasis on the linkages between cycles and the effects of human perturbations. Enrollment Requirement: BIOL 210 and 211. Prerequisite for undergrad-uates and enrollment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 354.

BIOL 537 (3) Microbial Physiology Current concepts and research involving the interactions of microorgan-isms with their environment, particularly those environments affecting human health. Demonstrates the interrelatedness of microbial ecology and medical microbiology. The course will (1) present modern experi-mental techniques used in conducting these interdisciplinary studies; (2) emphasize unusual bacteria pathways and cell signaling mechanisms found across the Bacteria, Archea and Eukarya, and (3) discuss the roles of microbial physiology in parthogenesis and the biotechnology industry. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enrollment requirement for graduate student: BIOL 351 or 367.

BIOL 540 (3) Molecular Methods in Ecology and Evolution Theory and practical application of modern molecular tools to identify and study ecological and evolut ionary relations hips. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Prerequisite for undergraduates and enroll-ment requirement for graduate students: BIOL 352.

BIOL 560 (2) Seminar in Molecular Cell Biology Readings from the original literature, discussions, and writing on selected curr ent subjects in cell and molecular biology. May be repeated with new content for a maximum of four (4) units toward the Master's degree.

BIOL 561 (2) Seminar in Genetics Readings from the original literature, discussions, and writing on selected current subjects in genetics. May be repeated with new content for a maximum of four (4) units toward the Master's degree.

BIOL 562 (2) Seminar in Development Readings from the original literature, discuss ions, and writing on selected current subjects in developmental biology. May be repeated with new content for a maximum of four (4) units toward the Master's degree.

BIOL 563 (2) Seminar in Physiology Readings from the original literature, discussions, and writing on selected current subjects in physiology. May be repeated with new content for a maximum of four (4) units toward the Master's degree.

BIOL 564 (2) Seminar in Evolution Readings from the original literature, discussions, and writing on selected current subjects in evolution. May be repeated with new content for a maximum of four (4) units toward the Master's degree.

BIOL 565 (2) Seminar in Ecology Readings from the original literature, discussions, and writing on selected current subjects in ecology. May be repeated with new content for a maximum of four (4) units toward the Master's degree.

BIOL 566 (2) Seminar in Aquatic Biology Readings from the original literature, discussions, and writing on selected current subjects in aquatic biology. May be repeated with new content for a maximum of four (4) units toward the Master's degree.

BIOL 576 (1) Laboratory Experience in Neurobiology Provides hands-on experience using the latest techniques in neurophysi-ology. Students will record intracellular signals in neurons using an invertebrate model nervous system. Students will gain experience in physiological and anatomical techniques. Three hours of laboratory. May not be taken for credit by students who have received credit for BIOL 597A. Co/prerequisite: BIOL 476.

BIOL 596 (1-3) Advanced Topics in Biology Advanced study of selected biological topics based on current problems or advances, and as demand warrants. Students should check the Class Schedule for listing of actual topics.

BIOL 597 (1) Advanced Topics in Biology Lab Laboratory in selected advanced topics in biology. Topics based on current problems or advances, and as demand warrants. Students should check the Class Schedule for listing of actual topics. Three hours laboratory.

BIOL 610 (3) Research Methods I Practical experience in the preparation of written and oral research proposals in the biological sciences. Students will actively take part in the peer review process commonly used to evaluate the scientific and technical merits of research proposals. Final product will be a formal written and oral, preferably the student's thesis proposal. Enrollment restricted to students with Graduate standing.

BIOL 611 (3) Research Methods II Practical experience in the skills necessary for the publication and presentation of biological research, including writing, speaking, and preparing figures and tables. Final product will be a formal oral presen-tation and a scientific poster. Enrollment restricted to students with Graduate standing.

BIOL 685 (2) Internship in Biology Instruction Supervised instruction in a laboratory course in the biological sciences. May be repeated, but no more than two (2) units may be applied toward the 30 units in the Master's degree. Enrollment restricted to students with Graduate standing.

 BIOL 686 (1-3) Graduate Topics in Biology Lecture and discussion of selected topics with emphasis on current problems and advances in subdisciplines of biological science. Students should check the Class Schedule for listing of actual topics. Enrollment restricted to students with Graduate standing.

BIOL 687 (1-2) Advanced Methods in Biology Graduate-level field or laboratory techn iques in a specialized area of contemporary biology. Students should check the Class Schedule for listing of actual topics. Enrollment restricted to students with Graduate standing.

BIOL 697B (2) 697C (3) 697D (4) 697E (5) 697F (6) Directed Studies Laboratory or field research directed or spons ored by Biological Sciences faculty. May be repeated for a maximum of six (6) units toward the Master's degree. Enrollment restricted to students with Graduate standing. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

BIOL 698B (2) 698C (3) 698D (4) 698E (5) 698F (6) Thesis Design, implemen tation, and analysis of a formal research project in the biological sciences. May be repeated for a maximum of six (6) units toward the Master's degree. Graded Credit/No Credit. Enrollment Requirement: Advancement to candid acy. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.

BIOL 699B (2) 699C (3) 699D (4) 699E (5) 699F (6) Thesis Extension Registration is limited to students who have received a grade of Satisfactory Progress (SP) in BIOL 698 and who expect to use the facili-ties and resources of the University to work on or complete the thesis. May be repeated. Graded Credit/No Credit. Enrollment Requirement: prior registration in BIOL 698 with an assigned grade of Satisfactory Progress (SP). Units may not be applied to the required units for the Master's degree. Enrollment restricted to students who have obtained consent of instructor.