Creating effective methods to assess and evaluate students learning and grading those assessments is one of the most challenging and time consuming tasks of an instructor. Chances are that when you hear the word "assessment" the first thing that comes to mind is "test". While there are a variety of techniques for assessment, there are two general types:
Formative assessments monitor student learning during the learning event or process. The results are used to identify areas where students are struggling so that instructors can adjust their teaching and students can correct their errors. Formative assessments can be short, targeted, informal or formal and are low-stakes (low point values). They should happen early in the semester and frequently thereafter. Providing your students with feedback based on assessments is the best chance you have to improve student learning and enhance their skills. To be effective, feedback needs to be timely, encouraging,reference a specific expected outcome, and tailored to the student.
How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students, free online book:by Susan Brookhart
Summative assessment techniques evaluate student learning at the end of a unit of instruction or the course. These are high-stakes assessments that measure how well the students have achieved the desired learning outcomes.
A well-written learning outcome or objective, will guide your choice of assessment. For example, objectives focused on recall of information can be evaluated by multiple-choice questions while objectives that ask students to synthesize information from different sources will likely be assessed in a written or oral reflection, report, or project.
The use of active learning techniques has expanded greatly in recent years, as educators have recognized that learning needs to be more more focused on the development of skills and processes, rather than memorization of factual information. With this shift, alternate assessment methods to tests and papers are needed to allow students to demonstrate these skills in different ways.
If you are looking for alternate methods, this easy to use chart comparing various assessment methods is a great place to start.
We have put together a list of easy to use free, online tools and apps that your students can use to create multimedia projects and presentations. Many of these can be used in the active learning classroom as well.
Rubrics can be used for a wide array of assignments: papers, projects, oral presentations,
performances and group projects. Using a rubric provides several advantages to both instructors and students. A rubric can help
Instructors communicate the requirements and standards of performance for an assignment.
When provided with an assignment, they can help students to monitor their progress
towards those standards. Rubrics can ensure that the instructor's grading standards
remain consistent over time. They can also reduce grading time by allowing instructors
to refer to the standards rather than having to write the same comments repeatedly.
The rubrics page contains links to a diverse set of rubrics that should provide you with ideas on
how to design a rubric for your field of study and type of assessment activity.
Recent research indicates that teachers could improve student learning by using tests as a study technique and not simply to measure learning for grading purposes. Taking a test involves retrieving information from your memory. In a 1011 study published in Science magazine, the researchers demonstrated that practicing retrieval produces greater learning gains than simply studying, or elaborative studying with concept mapping. With the right kind of encouragement students might be persuaded to use practice tests as a study strategy.
If you are using Cougar Courses for quizzing and testing, there are many different testing modes available to you, including allowing multiple attempts, different feedback modes and scoring methods. Research shows that giving feedback after each item on a test is less effective than giving feedback immediately after the entire test is complete. For help determining the best testing mode and settings for your quizzes, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
For test design tips, see the test and question design page.
Cheating happens when opportunities are available, the incentives are high and motivation is low. You can reduce cheating by designing courses and activities that reduce the opportunities and incentives to cheat and give your students greater control over their learning, a key factor in motivation.
Internet Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment, a very comprehensive site from NC State University, includes resources, research, and links for more information covering just about everything related to assessment at the course, departmental and institutional level.
Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping, Jeffrey D. Karpicke, et al., Science 331, 772 (2011)
The Impact of Self-and Peer-Grading on Student Learning, Philip M. Sadler and EddieGood, Educational Assessment, 11, 1 (2006)
Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science
Classes, Kathrin F. Stanger- Hall, Life Sciences Education, V 11, No 3,(2011)