Academic Dishonesty Definitions

From the University Catalog, pages 92-93:

The maintenance of academic integrity and quality education is the responsibility of each student within this University and The CSU system. Cheating and plagiarism in connection with an academic program at a campus is listed in Section 41301, Title 5, California Code of Regulations, as an offense for which a student may be expelled, suspended, put on probation, or given a less severe disciplinary sanction. Academic dishonesty is an especially serious offense. It diminishes the quality of scholarship and defrauds those who depend upon the integrity of the campus programs. Such dishonesty includes the following:

A. Cheating

Using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, or study aids in any academic exercise.


1. Faculty members are strongly encouraged to make every reasonable effort to foster honest academic conduct. This includes adequate communication of expectations about what kinds of collaboration are acceptable within the course. Instructors should state in course syllabi their policies and procedures concerning examinations and other academic exercises, as well as the use before examinations of shared study aids, examination files, and other related materials and forms of assistance.

2. Students completing any examination should assume that external assistance (e.g., books, notes, calculators, conversation with others) is prohibited unless specifically authorized by the instructor.

3. Students must not allow others to conduct research or prepare any work for them without advance authorization from the instructor. This comment includes, but is not limited to, the services of commercial term paper companies.

4. Students who are required to do a paper in a course should assume that submitting the same or similar paper to different courses (regardless of whether it is in the same semester or in different semesters) is not permitted without the explicit permission of the instructors of both courses.

B. Fabrication

Falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise.


1. “Invented” information may not be used in any laboratory experiment or other academic exercise without notice to and authorization from the instructor. It would be improper, for example, to analyze one sample in an experiment and covertly “invent” data based on the single experiment for several more required analyses.

2. One must use/acknowledge the actual source from which cited information was obtained. For example, a student may not reproduce sections from a book review and indicate that the section was obtained from the book itself.

3. Students who attempt to alter and resubmit returned academic work with intent to defraud the faculty member will be in violation of this section. For example, a student may not change an answer on a returned exam and then claim that they deserve additional credit.

C. Facilitating Academic Dishonesty

Intentionally or knowingly helping or attempting to help another to commit an act of academic dishonesty.


1. For example, a student who knowingly allowed copying from his or her paper during an examination would be in violation of this section.

2. Providing information about the contents of an examination to a student who will later take the examination, or taking an examination on behalf of another student, are violations of academic honesty.

D. Plagiarism

Intentionally or knowingly representing the words, ideas, or work of another as one’s own in any academic exercise, including: a) the act of incorporating the ideas, words, sentences, paragraphs, or parts thereof, or the specific substance of another’s work, without giving appropriate credit, and representing the product as one’s own work; b) the act of putting one’s name as an author on a group project to which no contribution was actually made; and c) representing another’s artistic/scholarly works such as musical compositions, computer programs, photographs, paintings, drawings, sculptures, or similar works as one’s own.


1. Direct Quotation: Every direct quote must be identified by quotation marks, or by appropriate indentation or by other means of identification, and must be promptly cited with author(s) name(s), year of publication, page number(s), footnotes and/or endnotes, depending on the citation style used. Proper citation style for academic writing is outlined by such manuals as the MLA handbook for writers of research papers, APA: Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, or Chicago manual of style.

2. Paraphrase: Prompt acknowledgment is required when material from another source is paraphrased or summarized in whole or in part in one's own words. To acknowledge a paraphrase properly, one might state: “to paraphrase Locke’s comment...” and conclude with a citation identifying the exact reference. A citation acknowledging only a directly quoted statement does not suffice to notify the reader of any preceding or succeeding paraphrased material.

3. Borrowed Facts or Information: Information obtained in one’s reading or research which is not common knowledge among students in the course must be acknowledged. Examples of common knowledge might include the names of leaders of prominent nations, basic scientific laws, etc.

4. Material which contributes only to the student’s general understanding of the subject may be acknowledged in the bibliography and need not be immediately cited. One citation is usually sufficient to acknowledge indebtedness when a number of connected sentences in the paper draw their special information from one source. When direct quotations are used, however, quotation format must be used and prompt acknowledgment is required.

Inquiries and assistance in reporting student misconduct is available through the Office of the Dean of Students, 760-750-4935.