PLEASE NOTE: Potential MA degree applicants should look at the link at the bottom of the MA program page for information about faculty research interests and publications.
Faculty Office Hours and Location: Please contact the faculty member via email or visit the faculty member during his/her office hours. Please refer to the Fall 2021 Psychology Department Directory & Office Hours.
|Tenure-Track Faculty||Current Lecturers||Department Staff|
Emeritus and Retired Professors:
(2017, Virginia Commonwealth University)
Dr. Berry joined CSUSM in the Fall of 2017. His program of research adopts a social and affective psychophysiology approach to understand the consequences of mindfulness (training) for social well-being. Dr. Berry’s most recent projects examine how mindfulness training catalyzes empathy and prosociality. He also studies resiliency factors of social threat. He addresses these questions through multiple methodologies including lab-based and diary indicators of in vivo social behavior and through the lens of psychophysiology (i.e., EEG/ERP).
(1980, University of California, Davis)
Dr. Caine came to CSU San Marcos in the fall of 1992. She served as Department Chair from 1992-1998, and has continuously served as Coordinator of the Graduate Program in Psychological Science. She earned her Ph.D. in Comparative Psychology at UC Davis and her research involves social behavior and sensory adaptations in mammals, with a specialty in nonhuman primates.
Dustin Calvillo, Ph.D. (2006, University of California, Santa Barbara), Department Chair
Chair of the Psychology Department. Prior to joining the faculty at CSUSM in Fall of 2007, Dr. Calvillo was a Visiting Assistant Professor at Ohio University . His area of expertise is Cognitive Psychology. His research interests include human reasoning, judgment, and decision-making.
Nate C. Carnes, Ph.D. (2017, University of Massachusetts, Amherst)
Dr. Carnes is joining CSU San Marcos in the Fall of 2017. His areas of specialization include both social and quantitative psychology. Dr. Carnes is interested in the group dynamic processes that underlie our moral psychology, and answers research questions surrounding why we care about equality, fight in wars, and pick political sides.
Haylee K. DeLuca Bishop, Ph.D. (2018, Kent State University)
Dr. DeLuca Bishop joined CSUSM in 2018. Her research investigates predictors and consequences of close relationships during adolescence and young adulthood, including peer, romantic, and sexual relationships, with a focus on individuals who have experienced a family transition or dissolution. Her recent projects have examined peer and romantic relationship outcomes of adoptees and foster youth (as compared to those reared by their biological parents) and how friends impact short- and long-term reactions to casual sexual relationships and experiences.
Gerardo M. Gonzalez, Ph.D. (1989, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno)
Dr. Gonzalez joined CSUSM in the Fall of 1991; his area of specialization is clinical psychology. He completed his predoctoral and postdoctoral clinical training at the University of California, Berkeley and a clinical-research fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco. Among his research interests are multicultural mental health issues (particularly for the Spanish-speaking), computerized clinical assessment, and the cognitive treatment of depression.
Lisa V. Graves, Ph.D. (2019, San Diego State University/University of California San Diego)
Dr. Graves joined the CSUSM faculty as an Assistant Professor of Psychology in Fall 2021. She received her PhD in 2019 from the SDSU/UC San Diego Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, with a major area of study in neuropsychology. She completed a predoctoral internship in clinical neuropsychology at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System in 2018-2019, and an advanced postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology with an emphasis in aging and Alzheimer’s disease at the VA San Diego Healthcare System and UC San Diego in 2019-2021. She is a licensed psychologist in the state of California, and has extensive experience in neuropsychological assessment of adults with known or suspected neurological dysfunction, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia within the context of neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. Her current research program is centered around (1) using sensitive neuropsychological and functional measures to improve diagnostic accuracy across the continuum of normal aging, MCI, and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders, and (2) examining influences of risk and protective factors on cognitive, functional, and biomarker trajectories, particularly among culturally diverse and historically underrepresented populations. Dr. Graves currently teaches neuropsychology at the undergraduate (PSYC 465) and master’s (PSYC 556) levels at CSUSM.
Sharon Hamill, Ph.D. (1990, University of California, Irvine)
Dr. Hamill joined the faculty in 1996 after serving on the faculty at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, WA. Dr. Hamill was CSUSM Psychology Department Chair from 2005-2008. Her area of specialty is developmental psychology. Her current research focuses on (1) multigenerational family relationships and caregiving for grandparents with Alzheimer's Disease and (2) the development of personal responsiblity in adolescents and emerging adults.
Alex C. Huynh, Ph.D. (2018, University of Waterloo, Canada).
Dr. Huynh joined CSU San Marcos in 2020. Dr. Huynh specializes in cultural and social psychology, with an emphasis on studying cultural change, intergroup relations, reasoning processes, and social class. His recent projects examine how cultural values shift in response to rising ethnic diversity, as well as what motivational and contextual factors predict wiser reasoning (e.g., intellectual humility, perspective taking).
Allison Jobin, Ph.D., BCBA-D (2012, University of California, San Diego).
Dr. Jobin joined CSUSM in 2020. Her research focuses on treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the effective delivery of evidence-based practices in community settings. Dr. Jobin is a licensed psychologist and board certified behavior analyst with expertise in the treatment and evaluation of ASD and related childhood disorders. Her areas of interest are in the examination of methods to promote the delivery of high-quality interventions in community-based settings and adaptations to improve fit within varied child and family contexts.
Sasha Y. Kimel, Ph.D. (University of Michigan)
Dr. Kimel is a social and cultural psychologist. Before joining the faculty at CSUSM in Fall 2018, Dr. Kimel was at Harvard University where she was a Harvard College Fellow, a postdoctoral fellow and a lecturer. She received her PhD from the University of Michigan. Dr. Kimel's research focuses both on the factors that impact conflict between diverse cultural groups and on how our cultures (e.g. nation, race/ethnicity, religion) shape they way we think, feel and behave.
Heike I. M. Mahler, Ph.D. (1986, University of California, San Diego)
Previously Dr. Mahler was a Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology at California State University, Long Beach and a Research Psychologist at the University of California, San Diego. She joined CSUSM in the Fall of 1990. Her areas of specialization are health psychology and social psychology. Dr. Mahler's current program of research focuses on how various psychosocial factors (e.g., perceived personal control, coping style, social support) may affect recovery from major surgery.
Aleksandria Perez Grabow, Ph.D. (2019, University of Oregon)
Aleks joined CSU San Marcos in Fall 2019. Her areas of specialization are clinical/counseling psychology and trauma. She completed her undergraduate studies at CSU Long Beach and worked in the community as a rape crisis counselor prior to her graduate work. Aleks completed her predoctoral clinical internship at UC Riverside’s Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS). Her research focuses on examining individual and environmental factors that influence long-term psychological, physiological, and behavioral outcomes of trauma through a non-pathologizing lens. Her work on trauma encompasses developmental trauma, collective trauma, and media violence exposure. Aleks teaches courses in the clinical area including Children, Adolescents, and Social Policy (CHAD 491), Clinical Psychology (PSYC 440), and the Proseminar in Clinical Psychology (PSYC 558).
Janice Phung, Ph.D. (2017, University of California, Irvine)
Janice joined the faculty at CSU San Marcos in 2019 after one year as a Visiting Assistant Professor at Pitzer College (of the Claremont Colleges). A developmental psychologist by training, Janice’s research investigates the challenges experienced by children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as they relate to individual and family outcomes. Her most recent project examined the effects of a community-based martial arts intervention on executive and social functioning in children with ASD. The goals of her program of research are 1) to better understand and promote optimal development in children and adolescents with ASD, and 2) to improve how stakeholders, namely caregivers and professionals who work with the autism community, interface with individuals with ASD to help them lead healthier and happier lives. She teaches within the area of developmental psychology. Janice teaches Exceptional Children (CHAD 339), Risk and Resiliency (CHAD 370) and the Lab in Developmental Psychology (PSYC 395).
Kim Pulvers, Ph.D., MPH (2006, University of Kansas)
Dr. Pulvers is a clinical psychologist committed to advancing public health through tobacco and cannabis behavioral research, particularly among groups disproportionately affected by tobacco use and disease, including young adults and members of racial/ethnic minoritized and low-income communities. She is passionate about reducing the burden of tobacco-related death and disease through testing smoking cessation treatments and harm reduction approaches and producing regulatory science. Before joining the faculty at CSUSM in 2008, Dr. Pulvers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, San Diego.
P. Wesley Schultz, Ph.D. (1995, Claremont Graduate University)
Dr. Schultz came to CSUSM in 1997 after two years as a Visiting Assistant Professor at St. Lawrence University. His areas of expertise are social psychology and statistics. His current research interests are in the application of social psychology to help understand and solve social problems.Recent projects include studies on environmental programs (energy conservation, water conservation, green marketing, recycling), cross-cultural research on environmental attitudes, and longitudinal research on programs aimed at promoting research careers among underrepresented students. Dr. Schultz is currently serving as Interim Dean of Graduate Studies and Associate Vice President for Research.
Prior to joining CSUSM in the Fall of 1991,Dr. Schustack was an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Harvard University and a research scientist for the U.S. government. Her area of specialization is cognitive psychology. Among Dr. Schustack's research interests are skilled reading and the development of literacy, reasoning and problem solving, language, and human-computer interaction. She also works in the field of personality psychology, with a particular interest in the relationship between cognition and personality.
Keith Trujillo, Ph.D. (1985, University of California, Irvine)
Dr. Trujillo came to CSUSM in the Fall of 1994 after eight years at The University of Michigan as a Postdoctoral Fellow, Research Investigator and Psychology Instructor. His areas of specialization are psychopharmacology and neuroscience. His current research focuses on behavioral and neural effects of psychoactive drugs, including drugs of abuse (such as opiates, amphetamine and cocaine) and psychotherapeutic drugs (such as antidepressants and antipsychotics).
Kimmie Vanderbilt, Ph.D. (2013, University of California, San Diego)
Dr. Vanderbilt joined CSUSM in Fall 2013. Her area of specialization is in social cognitive development. She completed her graduate and undergraduate degrees at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Vanderbilt's research interests focus on how children (and people in general) learn to reason about the thoughts and behaviors of others. Particularly, she investigates how young children learn to judge the reliability of sources who provide information, as well as how and when children make inferences about the mental states of such sources.
Prior to joining CSU San Marcos in 2014, Dr. Williams was at Mississippi State University (2005-2014) as an Assistant and then Associate Professor. His area of specialization is cognitive psychology with a specific interest in visual cognition. Dr. Williams' research focuses on the interaction of vision, attention, and memory when people view and process objects, faces, and scenes.
Kristine Brady, Ph.D.
Dr. Kristine Brady completed her undergraduate degree in psychology at UC Irvine and her doctoral degree in clinical psychology at Virginia Tech. She completed her internship at the Medical University of South Carolina with rotations at the VA PTSD clinic, the National Crime Victims and Research Center, the VA Substance Abuse Center, and the Low Country Children's Center. She went on to teach undergraduate and graduate courses at Rider University, Alliant International University, and the University of San Diego. She is currently an adjunct professor at CSU-San Marcos where she teaches abnormal psychology and social psychology. Dr. Brady is also a licensed psychologist (License #19375) who practices cognitive-behavioral therapy in Encinitas CA. She works with children, adolescents, and adults, specializing in anxiety and behavior disorders.
Theresa Cook (Vazquez), M.A. (2011, University of California, Riverside)
Theresa Cook (Vazquez) studies the influence of emotion on audiovisual speech perception, as well as cross-modal sensory integration and behavioral alignment. She is a Doctoral Candidate at UCR, where she teaches courses such as Introductory Psychology and Research Methods. Theresa teaches Introductory Psychology and Biopsychology at CSUSM.
Michael Diehr, Ph.D. (1999, SDSU/UCSD Joint Program in Clinical Psychology)
Dr. Diehr has a B.S. in Cognitive Science and a Ph.D. in Clinical Neuropsychology. His research focus includes neurocognitive sequelae seen in disease (such as HIV) and psychoactive substance use, as well as development of assessment tools and software use in research. He teaches in the Psychology Department (Cognition), and on occasion in the College of Business Administrations (Databases). In addition to teaching, he manages a small company providing consulting services to non-profit and healthcare organizations, and tries to spend as much time at the beach and in the mountains as possible.
Megan Dunbar O'Brien, M.A. (2010, California State University San Marcos)
Megan Dunbar O'Brien's area of specialization is industral organizational psychology with research interests in leader development. She teaches industrial organizational psychology and group dynamics at CSUSM. She also teaches at Palomar College.
Karen Eso, M.A.
Elisa Geiss, Ph.D.
Whitney Hawkins, M.A. (2017, California State University San Marcos)
Whitney Hawkins has a Masters degree in Psychological Science from CSUSM. Her area of specialization is cognitive psychology with special interest in memory distortion. Currently she teaches Cognitive Processes and Laboratory in Cognitive Psychology at CSUSM. She also teaches at MiraCosta College and Palomar College.
Ruben Hernandez, Ph.D.
Dr. Hernandez joined CSUSM in Fall 2015. Previously, he worked for over twenty years as a research neuroscientist studying the physiological basis of learning and memory using electrophysiology and behavioral techniques in rodents. His specialty is in the area of synaptic plasticity called Long-Term Potentiation (LTP). He has taught numerous courses in the department and other campuses including Introductory Psychology, Research Methods, Biological Psychology, and Sensation & Perception.
Heather Herrmann, M.A. (2015, California State University San Marcos)
Heather Herrmann joined CSUSM in the summer of 2015. Using her education in Human Development & Experimental Psychology she specializes in socio-emotional development with special interest in young children and adolescents. Her research includes the socialization of empathy through children’s understanding of apology and how this matures into adulthood.
Gabriel Holguin, M.A. (2018, California State University San Marcos)
Gabe Holguin joined CSUSM in the Fall of 2018. His area of specialization is in memory, cognition, and neuropsychological assessment. In addition to teaching Research Methods and Abnormal Psychology at CSUSM, he currently works at the Neurology Center of Southern California (TNC) as a psychological assistant. At TNC, he conducts neuropsychological examinations on patients who are experiencing memory impairment and cognitive decline.
Jenee James, Ph.D. (2010, University of Arizona)
Dr. James joined CSUSM in the Spring of 2011. Her doctorate work in Evolutionary Developmental Psychology examined individual differences in reproductive development and behavior. Dr. James is also a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist who maintains a clinical practice in Del Mar. Her clinical specialties include the treatment of trauma, depression, anxiety, and relational problems. She currently teaches Abnormal Psychology and Psychological Testing. She has also taught Introduction to Psychology, Developmental Psychology, and Laboratory in Developmental Psychology at CSUSM.
Sofia Jimenez, Ph.D.
Dr. Jimenez joined CSUSM in the Fall of 2018. She received her Ph.D. in Psychology and Human Development from Vanderbilt University. Her graduate work focused on language acquisition and, more specifically, preschoolers’ self-motivated word learning and the abilities that might influence it, such as curiosity, metacognition, selective-trust and existing language ability. Prior to that, she received her B.S. in Cognitive Science at UC San Diego. She has taught online for the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations at Vanderbilt and currently teaches Infancy and Childhood: Research and Theory and the Developmental Lab at CSUSM. In addition to teaching and research, she has been involved as a child development consultant at Safe Haven Family Shelter.
Marilyn Johnson-Kozlow, Ph.D. (2003, University of California, San Diego)
Dr. Johnson-Kozlow has a Masters degree in Psychometric Methods, Psychology, from the University of Minnesota (2002). She is a behavioral epidemiologist with research interests in evaluation of health behavior change interventions, improving measurement of tobacco, physical activity and dietary intake, and understanding health disparities. She teaches several classes at Palomar College in the Psychology Department as well as at San Diego State University in the Graduate School of Public Health. At CSUSM she teaches statistics (PSYC 220).
Alison Kreisler, Ph.D. (2015, University of Pittsburgh)
Dr. Kreisler joined CSUSM in the Spring of 2017. She is a neuroscientist currently doing research in rodent models at the VA Hospital in La Jolla. Her research interest is in the neurobiology of addiction.
Erin Lane, M.A.
Anne Marie Larsen, Ph.D. (2005, California School of Professional Psychology)
Dr. Larsen joined CSUSM in the Spring of 2011. She graduated in 1999 with BA in Psychology from UCLA and graduated in 2005 with PhD in Forensic Psychology from California School of Professional Psychology.
Barbara McPherson, M.A. (2008, California State University San Marcos)
Barbara McPherson has a Master's Degree in Experimental Psychology and is currently teaching Introduction to Developmental Psychology (PSYC 210) and Introductory Statistics in Psychology (PSYC 220). Her research interests include investigating how print media (coloring books) influence young children's development, examining both the positive and negative effects. She is also interested in positive psychology, curiosity across the life span, and the scholarship of teaching.
Emily Merryweather’s area of specialization is clinical counseling with research interests in mindfulness, emerging stages of development, palliative care, therapeutic storytelling, self-compassion and caregiving. She is currently part of a clinical practice team providing comprehensive, collaborative, holistic, and evidence-based outpatient mental health assessments and treatment for children and adults. She teaches Positive Psychology, Developmental Psychopathology, Survey of Clinical Psychology and Abnormal Psychology. She also leads mindfulness workshops for CSUSM students interested in bringing mindfulness practices to their communities and is actively involved in the Academic Senate, committee work and mentorship.
Dr. Miles has a Ph.D. in Clinical Health Psychology and a M.S. in Kinesiology – Sports Psychology. Her area of specialization is in clinical health psychology, specifically chronic pain, sleep disorders, and mood disorders. Her research interests include looking at the effects of mindfulness, yoga, and/or meditation on chronic illness, mood disorders, and anxiety. She started teaching at CSUSM in the fall of 2014 and typically teaches Psychology of Personality (PSY334), Social Psychology (PSY332), and/or Abnormal Psychology (PSY336). In addition to teaching, she is a licensed psychologist.
Dr. Miller began teaching at CSUSM in Fall 2011. She has taught courses in Cognitive Processes, Introduction to Psychology, Brain and Mind, and History of Psychology.In Fall 2013, she began conducting research in cognitive psychology that focuses on how perception influences the perceiver and how the background of the perceiver influences what is being perceived. She is particularly interested in understanding accent, audiovisual speech perception, speech production, and memory. She hopes to expand her research to include sign language perception and is currently learning American Sign Language.
Laura Olson Bermudez, Ph.D. (1998, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles)
Dr. Olsen Bermudez's professional background includes teaching, research, and clinical experience in the field of health psychology. She has taught psychology courses at MiraCosta for 19 years. Previously, Dr. Olson Bermudez was a clinical psychologist at Rady Children’s Hospital. She has been part of research at both Rady Children’s Hospital Center for Child Health Outcomes and the UCSD Cancer Center. Her clinical training is in the field of pediatric health psychology, interning at Children’s Hospital of Orange County and Children’s Hospital Los Angeles.
Judith Phillips, Ph.D. (2003, University of South Australia)
Dr. Phillips has taught internationally and for the past several years has been teaching at community colleges in the San Diego area. She has taught at CSUSM since Fall 2006. Her research interests include pre-departure preparation, in-country support, and repatriation of expatriate employees and their families on global assignments; social support networks, stress and cross-cultural adjustment of accompanying spouses on global assignments; social-cognitive development of children; and gerontology.
Evan Raiewski, Ph.D. (2014, University of California, San Diego)
Dr. Raiewski received his Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from the University of California, San Diego before joining CSUSM in the Fall of 2014. Dr. Raiewski is a Circadian Biologist investigating how the brain’s internal pacemaker entrains to daily and seasonal rhythms, and how the alteration of these rhythms impact physiology. Of primary interest, Dr. Raiewski is working on validating new statistical techniques for evaluating circadian waveform, to include cosine fitted and non-24 h approaches.
Lisa Taylor, Psy.D.
Dr. Trofimoff is a social-personality psychologist with interests in intergroup relations, the self-concept, cross-cultural psychology, and personality. His current research focuses on the interactive effects of personal self-esteem and collective self-esteem on in-group loyalty and the perceived legitimacy of intergroup status differences. He has taught a wide variety of courses at CSUSM since 1994 although he most frequently teaches Research Methods (Psyc 230) and Computer Applications (Psyc 300).
Michelle Vogel Trautt, M.A. (2011, California State University San Marcos)
Michelle Vogel Trautt specializes in applied social, developmental, and health psychology. She also has a concentration in educational leadership, primarily focusing on the role of leadership in student and faculty service driven departments at the collegiate level and development of andragogical curriculum for adult learners. She teaches an array of courses including Introduction to Psychology, Introduction to Behavioral Statistics and Research Methods for Behavioral Sciences, as well as Social and Developmental Psychology. She is also the Advisor for Gamma Sigma Alpha and Order of Omega, two academic honor societies at CSUSM that focus on student leadership throughout scholarship and service.
Anna Woodcock, Ph.D. (2012, Purdue University)
Dr. Woodcock is a social psychologist whose research interests lie in the broad areas of diversity, prejudice and stereotyping. She is currently investigating: the impact of implicit racial and gender bias on behavior and strategies to reduce bias, the processes by which stereotype threat operates, and the psychological processes underlying the underrepresentation of women and minorities in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers. Dr. Woodcock has taught Introductory Statistics in Psychology (PSYC 220), Social Psychology (PSYC 332), and Psychology of Prejudice (PSYC 333) at CSUSM.
Marissa Zubia McMackin, Ph.D. (2016, University of California, Davis)
Dr. Zubia McMackin has a B.S. degree is from UCSB in Biological Psychology and Master's Degree from SFSU in Biology, emphasis Physiology and Behavior. Her thesis work involved behavioral neuroscience research in an invertebrate model (Manduca sexta caterpillar). Her Ph.D. is from UC Davis (2016) in Molecular, Cellular, and Integrative Physiology and her dissertation research investigated behavioral neuroscience applications in rodent models of developmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.
Spencer McWilliams, Ph.D. (1971, University of Rochester)
Dr. McWilliams is Professor Emeritus at CSUSM. His interests are in constructivist approaches to personality and self, personal construct psychology, and Buddhist psychology.
Dr. O'Boyle is Professor Emeritus at CSUSM. Her research interests are in the history and philosophy of psychology, emotional and social development in infancy, and attachment and friendship between women across the lifespan.
Kathleen Boyle, Ph.D. (1992, University of California, Los Angeles)
Dr. Boyle joined CSUSM in Spring 2005, coming from California State University, Northridge. Previously, she was a research psychologist at UCLA, working in the area of drug abuse. Her research focus included antecedents and consequences of prolonged drug use, and factors that predicted drug users adherence to HIV prevention guidelines.
Colleen Moss, Ph.D. (1991, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale).
Dr. Moss joined CSUSM in the Fall of 1997. She is an educational psychologist with special interests in cognitive development and the impact of self-efficacy on learning. Dr. Moss was previously a child and adolescent mental health counselor in Illinois for eight years. She has taught a wide variety of psychology courses at several colleges and universities in Illinois and Ohio before moving to the San Diego area. At CSUSM, she has taught courses in Critical Thinking (Psyc 110), Developmental Psychology (Psyc 330), Developmental Psychology Lab (Psyc 395), Abnormal Psychology (Psyc 336), and Educational Psychology (PSYC 354).
Marie Thomas, Ph.D. (1981, Fordham University)
Dr. Thomas was on the faculty at the College of Mount St. Vincent (New York) and had worked as a Personnel Research Psychologist at the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center in San Diego. She joined CSUSM in 1995 and served as Psychology Department Chair from 2000-2003 and 2004-2005. Her areas of expertise are psychological testing, methodology, and statistics. She is currently working on a project with a colleague in the Economics Department to study the subjective well-being of college students. She is also interested in mindfulness, positive psychology, gender issues, and the scholarship of teaching.
Maureen J. Fitzpatrick, Ph.D. (2001, University of California, Irvine)
Dr. Fitzpatrick, a lifespan developmental psychologist, came to Cal State San Marcos in the fall of 2000 as a Visiting Faculty Fellow and joined the faculty full time in fall 2002. Her research focuses on the socioemotional development of infants and children; effects of non-parental care; and cross-generational interactions, including parent-child and grandparent-grandchild relationships.