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APA

Paper Layout

Citations

  • Article

     IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    Transcendental Meditation technique results in a state of “quiescence of the sympathetic nervous system” in the subjects (Trotter, 1973, p. 378). 

    Vedas were one of the first philosophical texts and are comprised of hymns, incantations, theological prose testimonials (Navone, 1956, p. 249).

    The author of MBSR refers to Dharma (a Hindu and Buddhist concept defining the nature of Universe), as a “trans-religious, trans-cultural and trans-historic” term that he coined to describe his experience with Buddhism, which he believes to be universal (Wakoh, 2010, p. 172).

    The dual-strategy model of reasoningexplains two individual differences in how people make decisions (Markovits et al., 2012; Verschueren et al., 2005). 

    REFERENCES EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Tang, F., & Pierce J. W. (2014). Alzheimer’s disease in young adultsJournal on Aging14(3), 220-243. 

    Stein, J. (2018). Short-term memory now gone: The unfortunate circumstances related to  

    Alzheimer’s disease. Science and Discovery, 2(23), 35-57. https://doi.org/10.1076/S0068-3942%2801%8900686-6    

    Wakoh, S. (2010). Meditation as medicine: A critique. Cross Currents, 60(2), 168-184.  Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24461556  

    Trotter, R. J. (1973). Transcendental meditation. Science News, 104(24), 376-378.  

    Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.csusm.edu/stable/3958535 

    Markovits, H., Forgues, H. L., & Brunet, M. L. (2012). More evidence for a dual-process model of conditional reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 40, 736-747. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-012-0186-4   

  • Book

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    Bourgois makes many mistakes as he is trying to assimilate himself in Harlem. Even though he was raised “just seven blocks downtown from El Bario’s southern border,” he makes faux pas and sometimes his mistakes are very costly (Bourgois, 2003, p. 35). 

    Similarlyto Siddhartha, I view human experience as “all interwoven and interlocked, entwined in a thousand ways” (Hesse, 1975, p. 135).

    REFERENCES EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Bourgois, P. (2003). In search of respect. San Francisco, CA: Cambridge University Press. 

    Cisneros, S. (1992). Woman hollering creek. New York, NY: Vintage Contemporaries.  

    Hesse, H. (1971). Siddhartha. New York, NY: Bantam Books. 

    Phillips, A. (1996). Monogamy. New York, NY: Vintage Books.  

    Tsukiyama, G. (1994). The Samurai’s garden. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Griffin.

  • Interview (in-text only)

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    During our interview, I asked Mr. Perkins questions related to his journey as a tattoo artist. When asked what inspired him to become a tattoo artist, he explained that he had always enjoyed drawing and was encouraged to begin tattooing by his friends and family (C. Perkins, personal communication, March 21, 2020).  

    *NOTE: Interviews are not cited in the Bibliography for APA. 
  • Powerpoint

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    A conceptual model of moderation identifies a predictor variable, moderator variable, and outcome variable, which together are used to answer second generation research questions (Berry, 2021). 

    REFERENCES EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Berry, D. R. (2021, February 1) Conceptual Basis of Moderation [PowerPoint Slides]. Google Drive. https://cc.csusm.edu/course/view.php?id=37102#section-8  

  • Webpage

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    Bing Liu, a research assistant professor at University of Pittsburg, was investigating the cellular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2, when he was tragically shot and killed by an unidentified man (Hassan, 2020).  

    An example ofthe legal clashes between Apple and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) can be seen in the DOJ’s intervention in Apple’s copyright suit against Corellium, a cybersecurity startup (Brewster, 2020). 

    REFERENCES EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Hassan, C. (2020, May 6).  Professor researching Covid-19 was killed in an apparent murder- 

    suicide, officials say. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2020/05/06/us/university-of-pittsburgh-professor-killed/index.html  

    Brewster. (2020, May 4).  Apple fights U.S. government intervention in iPhone copyright case. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2020/05/04/apple-fights-us-government-intervention-in-iphone-copyright-case/#ada8448681a7 

    Iyer, J. (2020, May 10). Riverside county cases climb by 47. Retrieved from https://www.pe.com/2020/05/10/riverside-county-coronavirus-cases-climb-by-47-state-releases-nursing-facility-data/ 

  • YouTube

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    Murder hornets may be the next threat to Americansalthough not deadly, these insects have a sting powerful enough to cause extreme swelling and pain that can last for hours (Inside Edition, 2020, 0:0:0-0:0:52).  

    The relationship between cats and humans began with catslearning to tolerate humans in exchange for food and humans tolerating cats for free pest control (Geigl, 2019, 0:2:07-0:2:15).  

    REFERENCES EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Inside Edition. (2020, May 4). What It’s like to Be Stung by a Murder Hornet [Video file]Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Chb_Iyx9ODQ 

    Geigl, E-M. (2019, Jan. 3). The history of the world according to cats. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/Jsj-hDW9bS8 

    ABC News. (2020, May 5). Tracking the Coronavirus Origins. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SDIKexhUr3U 


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Webinar

CSUSM Writing Center webinars may be assigned by instructors for credit. Interested instructors can visit our Assigning the Writing Center page. Students visiting for credit can learn more about confirming visits at our Visiting for Credit page.

Practice

CSUSM Writing Center webinars may be assigned by instructors for credit. Interested instructors can visit our Assigning the Writing Center page. Students visiting for credit can learn more about confirming visits at our Visiting for Credit page.


ASA

Paper Layout

Citations


CHICAGO

Paper Layout and Citations


CSE

Paper Layout

Citations


MLA

Paper Layout

Citations

  • Article

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    Regina James in “DantonDoes Not Sing La Marseillaise” argues that “Danton’s connection with September massacres is erased to focus on his opposition to the Terror,” and thus presents a morally unambiguous revolution that does not quite agree with the historical reality (295). 

    This is evident in the conflict between Ama and Julia where Julia is highly critical of her mother’s traditional and conservative worldview that she expresses through “obedience to family, strict religious views, and desire to maintain certain reflections of femininity” (Cantú-Sanchez 1).

    He theorizes the signs replaced the things signified and argues we were not even dealing with “imitation, nor reproduction, nor even of parody” but with “no relation to reality” (Baudrillard 1484).

    In his words, “a beholder who lacks the specific code feels lost in a chaos of sounds and rhythms, colors and lines” and cannot advance from the rudimentary stage of one’s basic understanding to an elevated plane of “what is signified” (Bourdieu 1588).

    Adorno and Horkheimer argue that “culture today is infecting everything with sameness,” and its main purpose is subjugation to capitalism (1033).

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented. 

    Baudrillard, Jean. “From the Precession of Simulacra.” The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, by Vincent B. Leitch et al., 3rd ed., W.W. Norton & Company, 2018, pp. 1483–1492. 

    Bourdieu, Pierre. “From Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste.” The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, by Vincent B. Leitch et al., 3rd ed., W.W. Norton & Company, 2018, pp. 1586–1592. 

    Cantú-Sánchez, Margaret. "“The Fourth Choice': Forging the Future of Chicanx  

    Mother/Daughter Relationships through Storytelling and the Path of Conocimiento in Erika Sánchez’s I’m Not Your Perfect Mexican Daughter and Barbara Renaud González’s Golondrina, Why did You Leave Me?" Label Me Latina/o, vol. 8, Fall 2018, pp. 1-17. ProQuest. Web. 19 Mar. 2019. 

    Horkheimer, Max and Theodor Adorno. “From Dialectic of Enlightenment.” The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, by Vincent B. Leitch et al., 3rd ed., W.W. Norton & Company, 2018, pp. 1033–1050. 

    Janes, Regina. "Danton Does Not Sing La Marseillaise: Andrzej Wajda, Jean Renoir, and Their  

    French Revolutions." Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture, vol. 25, 1996, pp. 293-307. Project MUSE, doi:10.1353/sec.2010.0232. Accessed 2 April 2019. 

     

  • Book

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    Her desire to write is her guiding force, albeit against the wishes of her parents, so when her mother destroys her poems thissends Julia crying “on the floor in the fetal position for hours” (Sanchez 207). 

    When Jane yells at Mrs. Reed, "I am glad you are no relation of mine: I will never call you aunt again,” she not only exhibits her passionate nature, but she also criticizes her aunt’s lack of compassion, cruelty, and unchristian conduct(Bronte 59). 

    Penelope is described through her servants’ eyes, and we can deduce that when she is not busy giving orders to her handmaids, she is “weeping for Odysseus, her beloved husband” (OdysseyXVI, 499). 

    Jane often finds herself discussing deep topics that go beyond the usual small talk. She and Rochester find many ways to engage their minds, unlike Blanche who is an object of Bronte’s criticism. Jane notes: 

    (Blanche’s) mind was poor, her heart barren by nature: nothing bloomed spontaneously on that soil; no unforced natural fruit delighted by its freshness.  She was not good; she was not original: she used to repeat sounding phrases from books: she never offered, nor had, an opinion of her own” (Bronte 207). 

    Matsu, a loyal caretaker and a gardener,was a quiet man who often sought solitude in the garden, “the only place he seems to feel any comfort” (Tsukiyama 73). 

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented. 

    Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Random House, 2005. 

    Fagles, Robert. The Odyssey. Viking Penguin, 1997. 

    Hesse, Hermann. Siddhartha. Bantam Books, 1971. 

    Sanchez, Erika L. I Am Not Your Perfect Mexican Daughter. Alfred A. Knopf, 2017. 

    Tsukiyama, Gail. The Samurai’s Garden. St. Martin’s Griffin, 1994 

  • Essays/Chapter in Book

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

     Social neuroscience is a field of psychology that brings together the methods of neuroscience research with theories of social behavior, to identify the cognitive mechanisms that influence the social brain (Wheatley, 343-365).  

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented. 

    Wheatley, ThaliaSocial Neuroscience.” Advanced Social Psychology: The State of the Science, edited by Finkle, Eli J., and Baumeister, Roy F, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, 2019, pp.343-365.  

     

  • Film/Television

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    During the semi-final ofThe Great British Baking Show, contestants had to create a pâte à savarinalso known as a Danish celebration cake, and mini cube cakes (“Patisserie Week”).  

    Newt Scamanderis a magical creature expert and activist. Newt’s admiration for wildlife is demonstrated when he shows Jacob the magical creatures in his care and discusses the importance of returning creatures back to their natural habitat (Fantastic Beasts).  

    The first timeAssane and Youssef meet in person is under dire circumstances, in which Youssef witnesses the kidnapping of Assane’s son and points him in the direction of the perpetrator (“Chapter 6” 1:20-2:00). 

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented. 

    “Chapter 6.” Lupin, season 2, episode 1, Gaumont Television, 11 June 2021. Netflix, https://www.netflix.com/browse/genre/83?jbv=80994082  

    Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. Directed by David Yates, Heyday Films and Warner Bros, 2016.  

    Patisserie Week.” The Great British Baking Show, season 8, episode 9, BBC, 24 October 2017. Netflix, www.netflix.com/search?q=great%20british%20bake%20off&jbv=80063224 

  • Interview/Lecture

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    Dr. Wallace discussed how to identify and describe themes in fiction.  A conceptual model of moderationidentifies a predictor variable, moderator variable, and outcome variable, which together are used to answer second generation research questions (Berry).   

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Berry, Daniel R. “Conceptual Basis of Moderation.” PSYC 520, February 2021, CSUSM, San Marcos, CA. Lecture.  

    Wallace, Mark. “Identifying themes in Fiction.” LTWR 313, 7 April 2020, CSUSM, San Marcos, CA. Lecture. 

    Siyahhan, Sinem. “Understanding Scaffolding.” EDUC 422, 10 March 2020, CSUSM, San Marcos, CA. Lecture. 

    Zapata-Pichon, Jesus. “Lightwaves, Pinholes, and Shadows” PHYS 307, 21 April 2020, CSUSM, San Marcos, CA. Lecture. 

  • Songs on Spotisfy

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    The sequences juxtapose images that represent life/death and religion/sin––to name a few––all to the tune of “Bad Things” by Jace Everett. 

    The sceneslowly ends while Led Zeppelin’s “Thank You” plays, “Inspirations what you are to me. Inspiration, look, see…” which suggests that... 

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Jace Everett. “Bad Things.” Jace Everett, Epic Records Nashville, 2005. Spotify, https://open.spotify.com/track/6AyQbN6nDBhcRPGAVLnpCb 

    Led Zeppelin. “Thank You.” Led Zeppelin II, Atlantic Records, 1969. Spotify, https://open.spotify.com/album/70lQYZtypdCALtFVlQAcvx?highlight=spotify:track:4ZkhFcoS3apzze9w2yI9NO 

  • Webpage

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    The narrator is reproached, “You lack the sense of taking part,” which metaphorically refers to our inability to be fully present to experience life (Szymborska line 19).

    “We still rule over the ruins of temples specters of gardens and houses/if we lose the ruins nothing will be left” is a poignant and ironic statement in which Herbert describes the complete demise of Polish nation, where the only real estate owned by the Poles are the ruins and specters of real things (line 8-9).

     

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented. 

    Herbert, Zbigniew. “Report from the Besieged City.” Poem Hunter,  

    www.poemhunter.com/poem/report-from-the-besieged-city/. Accessed 2 April 2019. 

    Szymborska, Wislawa. “Conversation with a Stone by Wislawa Szymborska.” WinsPoetry, 20 Nov. 2018, www.winspoetry.blogspot.com/2018/11/conversation-with-stone-by-wislawa.html. Accessed 1 May 2020. 

    Bronner, Daneille. “No One’s Going Out for Breakfast Anymore. That’s a Problem.” CNN, 7 May. 2020, www.cnn.com/2020/05/06/business/breakfast-fast-food-decline-coronavirus/index.html. Accessed 8 May 2020.  

    Domm, Patti. “April Employment Report is Expected to Show More than 20 Million Lost Jobs.” CNBC, 7 May, 2020. www.cnbc.com/2020/05/07/the-april-jobs-report-is-expected-to-show-more-than-20-million-lost-jobs-and-the-depth-of-pain-as-the-us-economy-slammed-shut.html. Accessed 8 May 2020. 

  • YouTube

    IN-TEXT EXAMPLES

    An additional cooking step to make your bean and cheese burrito more delicious is to fry bacon pieces in your pan before adding your refried beans, which will create a tasty “flavoring base” for the refried beans (The Ultimate Bean and Cheese Burrito 5:43-5:49).  

    Although the goal of Costco’s Covid-19 policies was to increase safety, some Costco members and employees disagreed with the policy changes, leading to canceled memberships and social media backlash (“Shoppers are Boycotting Costco”). 

    WORKS CITED EXAMPLES

    *NOTE: Every line except for the first line of each citation should be indented.

    Shoppers are Boycotting Costco Right Now and Here's Why Youtube, Uploaded by Inside  

    Edition, 4 May 2020, www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsxS9TSIAS4.   

    “The Ultimate Bean and Cheese Burrito” Youtube, Uploaded by Sam The Cooking Guy, 6 May 

     2020, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ro9A3h3d_aQ.  

    “10 Amazing Science Tricks using Liquid” Youtube, Uploaded by brusspup, 26 August          

    2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQx5Be9g16U.  

    “Everything you Need to Know About ‘Murder Hornets’” Youtube, Uploaded by Grunge, 5 May  

    2020, www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtVKXoNA-K0. 


More

Webinar

CSUSM Writing Center webinars may be assigned by instructors for credit. Interested instructors can visit our Assigning the Writing Center page. Students visiting for credit can learn more about confirming visits at our Visiting for Credit page.

Practice

CSUSM Writing Center quizzes may be assigned by instructors for credit. Interested instructors can visit our Assigning the Writing Center page. Students visiting for credit can learn more about confirming visits at our Visiting for Credit page.