4.3 Students explain the economic, social, and political life in California from the establishment of the Bear Flag Republic through the Mexican-American War, the Gold Rush, and the granting of statehood. Compare how and why people traveled to California and the routes they traveled (e.g., James Beckwourth, John Bidwell, John C. Fremont, Pio Pico).
- Analyze the effects of the Gold Rush on settlements, daily life, politics, and the physical environment (e.g., using biographies of John Sutter, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Louise Clapp).
- Study the lives of women who helped build early California (e.g., Biddy Mason).
- Discuss how California became a state and how its new government differed from those during the Spanish and Mexican periods.
4.5 Students understand the structures, functions, and powers of the local, state, and federal governments as described in the U.S. Constitution.
- Discuss what the U.S. Constitution is and why it is important (i.e., a written document that defines the structure and purpose of the U.S. government and describes the shared powers of federal, state, and local governments).
- Understand the purpose of the California Constitution, its key principles, and its relationship to the U.S. Constitution.
- Describe the similarities (e.g., written documents, rule of law, consent of the governed, three separate branches) and differences (e.g., scope of jurisdiction, limits on government powers, use of the military) among federal, state, and local governments.
- Explain the structures and functions of state governments, including the roles and responsibilities of their elected officials.
- Describe the components of California’s governance structure (e.g., cities and towns, Indian rancherias and reservations, counties, school districts).