Categories in a gradebook can be used in multiple ways:
By default, empty grades within a category are included in the category total. This means all ungraded items within the category are treated as zeros. If you check the box for “Exclude empty grades” only graded items will be counted in the category total. If you do this, you will want to keep in mind that if a student does not complete an item, you will want to be sure to enter a 0, so that the grade is included.
Note: See the other Help Guides under Gradebook to learn how to manually add grade items, make an item extra credit, drop the lowest score in a category, and manually input grades in the gradebook.